PCB are critical components of electronic devices. To ensure that PCB meet the necessary quality and performance standards, various industry organizations have developed a set of standards. This article will provide an overview of common standards used in PCB.
1.IPC-ESD-2020: Joint standard for the development of electrostatic discharge control programs. Includes the design, establishment, implementation and maintenance necessary for electrostatic discharge control procedures. Provides guidance for handling and protection during periods of sensitivity to electrostatic discharges, based on the historical experience of certain military and commercial organizations.
2.IPC-SA-61A: Manual for Post-Weld Semi-Aqueous Cleaning. Covers all aspects of hemihydrate cleaning, including chemical, production residues, equipment, processes, process controls, and environmental and safety considerations.
3.IPC-AC-62A: Post-Weld Hydroforming Cleaning Manual. Describes manufacturing residues, types and properties of aqueous cleaning agents, the process of aqueous cleaning, equipment and processes, quality control, environmental control, and employee safety, as well as the determination of cleanliness and the cost of the determination.
4.IPC-DRM-40E: Desktop Reference Manual for Through-Hole Solder Joint Evaluation. Detailed descriptions of components, hole walls, and solder surface coverage as required by the standard, in addition to computer-generated 3D graphics. Covers solder fill, contact angle, solder dip, vertical fill, pad coverage, and numerous solder joint defects.
5.IPC-TA-722: Welding Technology Assessment Handbook. Includes 45 articles on various aspects of soldering technology covering general soldering, soldering materials, manual soldering, batch soldering, wave soldering, reflow soldering, vapor phase soldering, and infrared soldering.
6.IPC-7525: Stencil Design Guide. Provides guidelines for the design and manufacture of solder paste and surface mount binder application stencilsi Also discusses stencil design for the application of surface mount technology and describes stencils with through-hole or flip chip components? Quintessence techniques, including overprinting, dual-printing, and staged stencil design.
7.IPC/EIA J-STD-004: Specification Requirements for Fluxes I includes Appendix I . Contains technical specifications and classification of rosin, resins, etc., organic and inorganic fluxes classified according to the halide content and degree of activation in the flux; also includes the use of fluxes, substances containing fluxes, and low-residue fluxes used in no-clean processes.
8.IPC/EIAJ-STD-005: Solder Paste Specification Requirements I includes Appendix I . Lists the characteristics and specification requirements for solder pastes and also includes standards for test methods and metal content, as well as stickiness, collapse, solder balls, adhesion, and solder dip performance of solder pastes.
9.IPC/EIA J-STD-006A: Specification Requirements for Electronic Grade Solder Alloys, Fluxes and Non-Fluxed Solid Solder. Provides nomenclature, specification requirements and test methods for electronic grade solder alloys, flux and non-flux solid solders in bar, strip and powder form, for electronic solder applications, and for special electronic grade solders.
10.IPC-Ca-821: General requirements for thermally conductive binders. Includes requirements and test methods for thermally conductive dielectrics for bonding components in place.
11.IPC-3406: Guidelines for Binders Applied to Conductive Surfaces. Provides guidance for the selection of conductive binders as an alternative to solder in electronics manufacturing.
12.IPC-AJ-820: Assembly and Soldering Manual. Contains descriptions of inspection techniques for assembly and soldering, including terms and definitions; types of printed circuit boards, components and pins, materials for solder joints, component mounting, specification references and outlines for design; soldering techniques and encapsulation; cleaning and laminating; and quality assurance and testing.
13.IPC-7530: Temperature Profile Guide for Batch Soldering Processes (Reflow and Wave Soldering). A variety of test methods, techniques and approaches are used in temperature profile acquisition to provide guidance in establishing optimum graphs.
14.IPC-TR-460A: Printed Circuit Board Wave Soldering Troubleshooting Checklist. A list of recommended corrective measures for failures that may be caused by wave soldering.
15.IPC/EIA/JEDEC J-STD-003A: Solderability Testing of Printed Circuit Boards.
16.J-STD-0 13: Application of Ball Foot Grid Point Array Packages (SGA) and Other High Density Technologies. Establishes the specification requirements and interactions needed for the printed circuit board packaging process to provide information for high performance and high pin-count integrated circuit package interconnections, including information on design principles, selection of materials, board fabrication and assembly techniques, test methods, and reliability expectations based on end-use environments.
17.IPC-7095: Design and Assembly Process Supplement for SGA Devices. Provides a variety of useful operational information for those who are working with SGA devices or are considering moving to the field of array package formats; provides guidance on testing and repairing SGAs and provides reliable information on the SGA field.
18.IPC-M-I08: Cleaning Instruction Manual. Includes the latest version of the IPC Cleaning Guide to assist manufacturing engineers when deciding on the cleaning process and troubleshooting of their products.
19.IPC-CH-65-A: Cleaning Guidelines in Printed Circuit Board Assembly. Provides a reference for current and emerging cleaning methods in the electronics industry. Includes descriptions and discussions of various cleaning methods, explaining the relationship between various materials, processes, and contaminants in manufacturing and assembly operations.
20.IPC-SC-60A: Handbook of Solvent Cleaning After Soldering. Gives the use of solvent cleaning techniques in automated and manual welding, discussing the nature of solvents, residues, and process control and environmental aspects.
21.IPC-9201: Surface Insulation Resistance Handbook. Contains the terminology, theory, test procedures and test methods for Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) and also includes temperature and humidity (TH) testing, failure modes and troubleshooting.
22.IPC-DRM-53: Introduction to Electronic Assembly Desktop Reference Manual. Illustrations and photographs used to illustrate through-hole mounting and surface mount assembly techniques.
23.IPC-M-103: Surface Mount Assembly Manual Standard. This section includes all 21 IPC documents pertaining to surface mount.
24.IPC-M-I04: Printed Circuit Board Assembly Manual Standard. Contains the 10 most widely used documents pertaining to printed circuit board assembly.
25.IPC-CC-830B: Performance and Qualification of Electronic Insulating Compounds for Printed Circuit Board Assembly. Conformal coating meets an industry standard for quality and qualification.
26.IPC-S-816: Process Guide and Checklist for Surface Mount Technology. This troubleshooting guide lists all types of process problems encountered in surface mount assembly and their solutions, including bridging, solder leakage, and misaligned component placement.
27.IPC-CM-770D: Printed Circuit Board Component Mounting Guide. Provides effective guidance for the preparation of components for printed circuit board assembly and reviews relevant standards, influences, and issuances, including assembly techniques (both manual and automated as well as surface mount technology and flip chip assembly techniques) and considerations for subsequent soldering, cleaning, and laminating processes.
28.IPC-7129: Calculation of the number of failures per million opportunities (DPMO) and manufacturing metrics for printed circuit board assembly. A benchmark metric for calculating defects and quality related industry consensus; it provides a satisfactory method for calculating a benchmark metric for the number of failures per million opportunities.
29.IPC-9261: Printed Circuit Board Assembly Yield Estimates and Failures per Million Opportunities in Assembly. Defines a reliable method for calculating the number of failures per million opportunities during the assembly of printed circuit boards and is a metric for evaluation at various stages of the assembly process.
30.IPC-D-279: Design Guide for Reliable Surface Mount Technology Printed Circuit Board Assemblies. A guide to a reliable manufacturing process for surface mount technology and mixed technology printed circuit boards, including design ideas.
31.IPC-2546: Combined Requirements for Transfer Points in Printed Circuit Board Assembly. Describes material movement systems such as actuators and buffers, manual placement, automated screen printing, automated binder dispensing, automated surface mount placement, automated plated through-hole placement, forced convection, infrared reflow ovens, and wave soldering.
32.IPC-PE-740A: Troubleshooting in printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. Includes case documentation and correction activities for problems that occur during the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of printed circuit products.
33.IPC-6010: Printed Circuit Board Quality Standards and Performance Specifications Manual Series. Includes quality standards and performance specification criteria established by the American Printed Circuit Board Association for all printed circuit boards.
34.IPC-6018A: Inspection and Testing of Microwave Finished Printed Circuit Boards. Includes performance and qualification requirements for high frequency (microwave) printed circuit boards.
35.IPC-D-317A: Guidelines for the design of electronic packages utilizing high-speed technology. Provides guidance for the design of high-speed circuits, including mechanical and electrical considerations and performance testing.